Losing an Empire and Finding a Role: Britain, the USA, NATO and Nuclear Weapons, 1964–70

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How is that? Because He conforms in exact detail to descriptions of the Supreme Being, the Godhead.

Beyond Emboldenment: How Acquiring Nuclear Weapons Can Change Foreign Policy

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Polaris (UK nuclear programme)

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A New research of a first Cookies for chansons interests 're seriously Exploring. Your premise became a course that this account could somewhere be. It was believed that the MRV arrangement would also make the warhead harder to intercept with an anti-ballistic missile ABM similar to that of the American Nike Zeus system. Testing of the A-3, with its new guidance and re-entry packages commenced on 7 August , and continued until 2 July The first submerged launch was conducted on 26 October Most of the problems encountered involved failures of the re-entry body to separate correctly.

The Americans revealed that work was in progress to add penetration aids to the re-entry vehicle, but promised that it would not have any effect on the interface between the missile and the UK re-entry vehicle. The British team did not think they were necessary, and in the end the Americans never deployed them with the A The decision was therefore taken in March to substitute the British fission primary , codenamed "Katie", used in the WE.

The fusion secondary was codenamed "Reggie".

Britain, the USA, NATO and Nuclear Weapons, 1964–70

This became known as the ET. In order to meet Polaris in-service deadline of May , the components had to be ordered by May This was authorised by Douglas-Home on 28 November This tested a design of the ET. With four Polaris boats each carrying 16 missiles each with three warheads, there were warheads in total. Additional active materials required were obtained from the US. It was originally estimated that Polaris would require 6, officers and men. Few submariners expected to rise to flag rank, but this was already changing with the ascension of officers like Mackenzie and Luce.

The design and construction of a new base was undertaken by the Ministry of Public Building and Works. Construction was not straightforward, as the ground was rocky and the rainfall was high. The new base opened in August It was served by a weapons store at nearby Coulport.


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HM Dockyard, Chatham , was subsequently upgraded to handle the hunter-killer submarines, and Rosyth was reserved for the 10th Submarine Squadron , as the Polaris boats became. To train the required crews, a Royal Navy Polaris School RNPS was built adjacent to the base at Faslane, although it was accepted that training of the first two crews at least would have to be conducted in the United States, and arrangements for this were made with SPO.

They were not identical, and were oriented towards training in maintenance rather than operations. Shepard's group pushed for the RNPS to have equipment that looked identical to an actual Polaris submarine, and performed or simulated its operation. This had always been an extremely tough course; now it became tougher still. It was designed to test candidates to their utmost, and to allow them to explore and accept their limitations. On 16 October , in the midst of the election campaign that brought the Wilson government to office, China conducted its first nuclear test.

This led to fears that India might follow suit. A planning paper was drawn up in January A base would be required, and Fremantle in Australia was suggested. The prospect of cancelling Polaris was also discussed, but Wilson fought for its retention. For submarine captains accustomed to patrols in other submarines, a Polaris patrol required a different mindset.

Instead of locating, stalking and closing on prospective targets, the Polaris boat was itself the hunted, and had to avoid any contact with other vessels. For submariners accustomed to diesel-powered boats, the Polaris boats were very pleasant indeed.

coundatacock.tk There was no need to conserve water, as there was distilling capacity to spare, so the crew could have hot showers and laundry facilities. Nor was there any need to conserve battery power, as the reactor supplied enough power for a small town. Every sailor had his own bunk, so there was no hot bunking. The crew included a doctor and supply officers. The original US Navy Polaris had not been designed to penetrate ABM defences, but the Royal Navy had to ensure that its small Polaris force operating alone, and often with only one submarine on deterrent patrol, could penetrate the ABM screen around Moscow.

Although it suffered from reliability problems that were not completely resolved until , [] it represented a clear improvement over Polaris, and became the preferred option of the AWRE and the Admiralty. While it could not be carried by the ten George Washington - and Ethan Allen -class boats, it could be accommodated on the British Resolution class. Foster, Jr. While the cost was a factor, the main obstacle was political, and the Wilson government publicly ruled out the purchase of Poseidon in June Without an agreement on improvement, the Special Relationship began to decay.

The result was Chevaline , an improved front end IFE that replaced one of the three warheads with multiple decoys, chaff , and other defensive countermeasures , [] in what was known as a Penetration Aid Carrier PAC. Its adoption by the British warhead saved on research, but required a redesign of their warhead. This drove debate about the number of decoys that were required. At the same time, the government elected to press on with Chevaline. Chevaline's existence, along with its formerly secret codename, was revealed by the Secretary of State for Defence, Francis Pym , during a debate in the House of Commons on 24 January One hundred A-3TK warheads were produced between and The Polaris system was also upgraded through the replacement of the solid fuel motors after some test-firing failures.

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