We also appreciate the professional editing work of Melissa Read seen throughout this book. We describe the WISC-V subtests related to each of the five primary and five ancillary cognitive indexes, as well as the three complementary indexes designed to assist psychologists with psychoeducational evaluations of specific learning disabilities. The Wechsler scales are the most widely used measures of intelligence, and have been translated, adapted, and standardized in dozens of countries around the world.
Each of these tests has undergone multiple revisions over several decades. This book is about the fifth edition of the WISC. In a series of major theoretical shifts from the original Wechsler model described in , the Wechsler tests have evolved with each version. The WISC-V is based on a five part structure, and the resulting five, factor-based index scores have become the primary level of clinical interpretation. The contemporary Wechsler theoretical model measures the following five domains of cognitive ability: verbal conceptualization, visual—spatial organization, fluid reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
At that time, working memory was referred to as freedom from distractibility —an older term that reflected the incomplete understanding of the construct at that time. The VIQ and PIQ were eliminated completely from the WISC-IV, along with changing the name of the freedom from distractibility index to the working memory index to reflect the improved understanding of that construct, and changing the name of the perceptual organization index to the perceptual reasoning index to reflect the increased focus on fluid reasoning among the newly created perceptual subtests.
To accomplish this, new subtests were created and combined with selected perceptual reasoning and working memory subtests to create a fluid reasoning factor. The debate over both the empirical foundations and clinical utility of a four versus five factor structure was the focus of an influential set of papers published in a special issue of the Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment JPA Tobin, The fifth factor, of course, was fluid reasoning FR , which was formed by some subtests previously assigned to the perceptual reasoning and working memory factors.
Another key finding from these papers was that the five factor solution fit the data well in large samples of mixed clinical subjects for both WISC-IV and WAIS-IV, thus supporting the clinical application of the model.
WISC-V Assessment and Interpretation
Similarly, adding a fluid reasoning factor to the Wechsler model has also been a systematic research goal since , leading to the development and validation of three fluid reasoning subtests introduced successively in various subsequent editions: Matrix Reasoning, Picture Concepts, and Figure Weights. While the psychometric fit of the third and fourth editions of the Wechsler series to a four factor model has been well established for decades, the continuous evolution of the contemporary Wechsler scales to a five factor theoretical model has been guided less by CHC-related factor analytic findings and more by ongoing clinical research in neuropsychology and cognitive information processing, as described in Chapter 5.
The good news for our science is that independent research labs have derived surprisingly similar models of intelligence based on different lines of research, and this is ultimately confirming the progress the field is making in better understanding the nature of intellectual functioning.
To be fair to Dr. These were buried inside the VIQ and PIQ depending on whether the stimuli and response processes were verbal or visual—perceptual, respectively. Still, Dr.
Wechsler knew that mental manipulation of numbers was importantly related to intelligence and that is why he included the Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests in the VIQ. Similarly, he knew that quick visual scanning played an important role in cognition and so he included the Coding subtests as part of the PIQ. As we have also seen, with the addition of newer subtests to reflect contemporary models of and research on intelligence, subtests such as Arithmetic have emerged from being initially included in the VIQ to being a key subtest tapping working memory and now finding a place as an optional subtest on the Fluid Reasoning domain.
Present-day researchers have developed well-articulated theories about the underlying neurocognitive processes tapped by these tasks and how they are related to intelligence. Much like the well-known aspirin that continues to be found relevant in the treatment of many more health issues than initially considered, Digit Span is now understood as tapping working memory, especially when digits are recalled in reverse or rearranged in an ordered sequence.
Coding is now understood as a measure of cognitive processing speed rather than just simple copying or hand-eye coordination.
WISC5 | Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children |
As more has been learned about these areas, the Wechsler tests have changed over time such that these constructs have been disentangled from VIQ and PIQ, and stand alone. Furthermore, new tasks such as Letter-Number Sequencing and Cancellation were added to elaborate the assessment of working memory and processing speed, respectively. Similarly, although the term fluid reasoning was not used in Dr.
Although most intelligence tests going back to the early Binet measures seem to have amply covered the more crystallized side, further research on fluid reasoning led to the development of four new Wechsler subtests that measure this construct more directly. The key point of this brief year historical backdrop is that the Wechsler scales have changed substantially over the decades, keeping pace with rapid advances in the understanding of intelligence.
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Yet, without Dr. Wechsler gave us—one that builds upon multiple modern theories of cognitive neuroscience informed by ongoing clinical and neuropsychological research. As we often state at workshops, children all with FSIQs of can show many different patterns of strengths and weaknesses among the primary cognitive abilities, leading to considerable variability in school achievement and many other facets of behavior in which intelligence plays a major role.
Each of these five index scores is defined and measured by two primary subtests. Most of these five domains include secondary subtests, which are optional and when administered may provide additional information regarding performance in the respective domain. In later chapters we will more fully describe the index scores and their relevance in diagnostic assessment and program-intervention planning. The focus here is to provide an overview of the parts or subtests that comprise the whole as reflected in both the index scores and the FSIQ.
Two chapters review use of the WISC-V for identifying learning disabilities, testing of individuals with dyslexia, and best-practice recommendations to ensure accurate diagnosis and intervention. Concluding chapters describe advances in the Q-interactive system platform allowing administration of the WISC-V on iPads and other tablets and how clinicians can tailor assessment using select WISC-V subtests and features.
Lawrence G. Weiss has presented widely on intelligence in more than a dozen countries. In addition, he has authored or coauthored approximately 30 journal articles, 12 technical reports, and 10 other book chapters. Donald H. Don's research focuses on personality, intelligence, individual differences and psychological assessment. He has published more than journal articles, book chapters and books.
Weiss, Donald H. Saklofske, James A. Holdnack, and Aurelio Prifitera. Weiss and Donald H. Lynne Beal, James A. Holdnack, Donald H. Saklofske, and Lawrence G. Weiss, James A. Saklofske, and Aurelio Prifitera. Harris, Donald H. Saklofske and Aurelio Prifitera. Shaywitz, Lawrence G. Saklofske, and Sally E. Miller, Donald H. Weiss, Lisa Drozdick, Antolin M.
Llorente, James A. Current and future directions. Holdnack, Aurelio Prifitera, Lawrence G. Dewey: Wisc-v Assessment and Interpretation : Scientist-practitioner Perspectives. Oxford: Academic Press, APA: Weiss, L. WISC-V assessment and interpretation : scientist-practitioner perspectives. Oxford: Academic Press. Chicago: Weiss, Lawrence G.
Holdnack, and Aurelio Prifitera. W42 b W 4 a Set language NL EN.